In theory, any space can be divided into two basic types: free space and closed space. The sound field formed in these two spaces can generally be treated as a free sound field and a reverberant sound field.
The so-called free sound field refers to a sound field with only direct sound without reflected sound or reflected sound. For example, a sound field formed in an infinite space or an anechoic chamber. In such a sound field, sound waves will propagate freely. Therefore, the law about the free propagation of sound waves can be applied. For example, the change of sound pressure is inversely proportional to the propagation distance, that is, the sound pressure is attenuated according to the inverse proportional law.
The reverberant sound field is a sound field that is uniform in energy density and randomly distributed in each direction of propagation, that is, a diffused sound field. Obviously, in such a sound field, the sound energy in any direction received at any point is the same. The reverberant sound field can only be formed in an enclosed space. In this sound field, there are not only direct sound but also a large amount of reflected sound. They are intertwined and inseparable from each other. In particular, when the sound source stops sounding, the sound does not disappear immediately, but it has to continue for a while, that is, reverberation. The reverberation phenomenon is the basic feature of the diffuse sound field.
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