People's language activities are a complex psychological and physiological activity process. It consists of three levels: psychological level, physiological level and physical level. The pronunciation of human beings is carried out under the control of the brain. It is inseparable from the psychological process of thinking and emotion. A series of organs involved in the pronunciation coordinate and cooperate with the voice under the command of the brain. This is a process of physiological activity; the words spoken are the physical form of sound waves can measure the values of pitch, volume, timbre, and length of sound. This is the physical aspect of language. The following is only the analysis of human pronunciation from the level of physiological activity.
The organs in which the human body participates in pronunciation can be roughly divided into four systems: a power system, a vibration system, a spit system, and a resonance system.
The power system is made up of a breathing-related device that provides the power to breathe the vocal cords. The dynamic system mainly includes the lungs, trachea, diaphragm, thorax, and muscle groups involved in breathing (intercostal muscles, intercostal muscles, rectus abdominis, abdominal oblique muscles, etc.). After exercise, we can control the depth, how much, how fast, and how long. The deep, uniform, and lively breath provides a powerful guarantee for the exchange of voiced language.
The vibration system includes the throat and vocal cords. The vocal cord in the throat is the vibrating body of the human voice. It is the sound source. The vocal cords are vibrated to produce the "throat sound", which is the sound for the processing of the sputum organ and the resonance organ. The vocal cords are two muscle tissues that can be opened and closed and have elastic changes. The opening and closing and elastic state are mainly controlled by the laryngeal muscles. The different states of the vocal cord opening and closing bring about the change of the virtual sound, the vocal cords are separated, the airflow passes, and the virtual sound is emitted (similar to the whispering of the whispers); the vocal cords are tightly closed, and the vocal cords vibrate when the airflow passes, which is bright but "biased" The sound of "tight" and "hard"; the vocal cords are close together, and the airflow passes through, which is a soft combination of false and real. We generally advocate the use of "virtual and real sound", because in this state, the vocal cords can vibrate relatively freely, the sounding effect is good, and there is no vocal cord lesion (such as vocal cord nodules, vocal cord polyps) due to the intense collision of the vocal cords.
The voicing system is composed of the oral cavity and the nasal cavity capable of forming meaningful speech, and among them, chewing, tongue, teeth, hard palate, soft palate, etc. in the oral cavity are particularly important. Their different combinations and different activities have formed a variety of vowels and consonants, as well as hundreds of languages in the world. The accuracy, power and flexibility of the organ movements are what we should strive to do.
The resonance system is composed of some cavities related to the pronunciation, mainly including the oral cavity, the pharyngeal cavity, the nasal cavity, and the chest cavity. The function of the resonance organ is to expand and beautify the original sound of the throat emitted by the vocal cord vibration and the voice composed of the vomiting organs, and finally pass it out of the body and be accepted by people. In the range of voiced language activities, the resonance organ of the oral cavity should be mainly used to make the sound more round and concentrated, which is louder and clearer and less laborious.
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