Analysis Of Microphones And Their Response Characteristics

- Sep 28, 2018-

The Microphone is a member of the transducer family and its main function is to convert energy from one form to another. The role of the microphone is to convert the air fluctuations and pressure generated by the sound into a wave level signal suitable for use by the electronic device.

For the microphone to not affect the quality of the recording, it must adapt to sound with a wide dynamic range. For example, when the drumstick strikes the drum, the volume before the tap and the moment of the tap is very different, and the microphone must be able to cope with this loudness. Even a human voice can produce a wide range of sound levels. The microphone used to record music must be able to convert low-pitched whispers and loud screams into electrical signals with the same accuracy and then recorded into the computer through the mixer.

Microphones fall into two broad categories: dynamic microphones and condenser microphones. The dynamic microphone has a diaphragm made of a fabric that vibrates with sound waves. The diaphragm is connected to a voice coil that is wound around a multi-turn wire. The voice coil moves in the magnetic field generated by the magnet inside the microphone, cutting the magnetic field lines to generate a current corresponding to the vibration of the diaphragm. This current represents the sound signal.

Condenser microphones convert sound waves into electrical signals in a different way than dynamic microphones. A condenser microphone has two plates that are close to each other but not in contact. The plates are connected to a battery or other power source and are charged. One of the plates is designed to move with different sound pressures while the other is stationary. When one plate moves back and forth with the undulating sound pressure relative to the other plate, a voltage is generated between the two plates in accordance with the change in the magnitude of the sound pressure, thereby generating electricity signal for inputting the mixer.



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