What Is the Difference Between A Dynamic Microphone and A Condenser Microphone?

- Jan 15, 2019-

  In general, condenser microphones are superior to dynamic microphones in sensitivity and extended high frequency (and sometimes low frequency) response. This is related to the working principle of the condenser microphone that needs to convert the sound signal into a current. Usually, the diaphragm of a condenser microphone is very thin and is easily affected by the sound pressure to cause vibration, which causes a corresponding change in voltage between the diaphragm and the diaphragm back panel.

   This voltage change is then converted to a sound signal output after multiple amplification of the preamplifier. Of course, the preamplifier here refers to the amplifier built into the microphone, rather than what we usually call "preamplifier", which is the type of preamplifier on the mixer or interface. Since the area of the condenser microphone diaphragm is very small, it is very sensitive to low frequency or high frequency sound signals.

  This is true. Most condenser microphones can accurately capture many sound signals that are inaudible to the human ear. In contrast, dynamic microphones work much simpler. It mainly produces sound signals by the movement of conductors in a magnetic field. In fact, the dynamic microphone we usually say, in a strict sense, should be called a "moving-coil" dynamic microphone, because the sound signal of this microphone is mainly connected to the diaphragm. The wire coil is completed by continuously moving in the magnetic field according to changes in sound pressure.

  Because of the relatively large volume of the moving part, the dynamic microphone is inferior to the condenser microphone in terms of response frequency range (mainly high frequency part), sensitivity and transient response capability.


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