The electrostatic loudspeaker is a speaker that operates by the electrostatic force applied to the capacitor plate. As seen from the structure, since the positive and negative electrodes face each other in a capacitor shape, they are also called capacitive speakers. The electrostatic speaker has two thick and hard materials as the fixed plate, which can transmit sound through the plate, and the middle plate uses a thin and light material as the diaphragm (such as aluminum film). The diaphragm is fixed and tensioned to maintain a considerable distance from the fixed pole. Even on the large diaphragm, it does not touch the fixed pole.
The original DC voltage (called bias voltage) is between the two electrodes of the electrostatic speaker. If the audio voltage outputted by the amplifier is applied between the two electrodes, it overlaps with the original output voltage to form an alternating pulsating voltage. This pulsating voltage is generated due to the change in the attraction force of the two-pole gap, and the diaphragm vibrates to sound.
The advantage of the electrostatic speaker is that the entire diaphragm vibrates in phase, the diaphragm is light, the distortion is small, and the extremely crisp sound can be reproduced, and the resolution is good, the details are clear, and the sound is realistic. Its shortcoming is low efficiency, high-voltage DC power supply, easy to vacuum and increased distortion of the diaphragm. It is not suitable for listening to rock and heavy metal music, and the price is relatively expensive.
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