The Technical Parameters of Microphone

- Sep 21, 2018-

1. Sensitivity: an indicator that characterizes the acoustic and electrical conversion capabilities of a microphone. The definition is: how much voltage is generated at the output of the microphone under the action of the unit sound pressure. The sensitivity is related to its own output impedance, the output impedance is increased, and the sensitivity is improved.

2. Frequency response characteristics: the frequency response of the microphone refers to the ratio of the open output voltage of the acoustic signal of each frequency to the open output voltage of the microphone at the specified frequency under the action of the constant sound pressure and the incident angle sound wave. The frequency response called the microphone is expressed in decibels. Generally speaking, the wider the frequency response curve, the better is.

3. Pointing characteristics: refers to the characteristics of the microphone that change in the direction of the incident sound wave. There are roughly three categories: omnidirectional, directional, and bidirectional.

4. Intrinsic noise and equivalent noise level: under ideal conditions, the noise pressure measured when the sound pressure of the microphone drops to zero, that is, the inherent noise of the microphone. It is more appropriate to use the equivalent noise level to characterize the inherent noise of the microphone.

5. Harmonic distortion: after the sound source is picked up by the microphone, some frequencies and harmonics are added or lost, and nonlinear distortion is generated, which also becomes harmonic distortion.

6. Output impedance: the output impedance, also known as the source impedance (the microphone is the signal source), is used to indicate that a signal source provides the ability to signal the signal presented by the underlying load (input impedance).

7. Maximum sound pressure level: under the action of strong sound pressure, the microphone will produce harmonic distortion, the higher the sound pressure, the greater the harmonic distortion, and the corresponding sound pressure level of the maximum allowable value of harmonic distortion is the highest sound pressure level of the microphone.

8. Instantaneous response: it refers to the ability of the output voltage of the microphone to follow the input sound pressure level to change abruptly. It is a measure of the response of the microphone diaphragm to the acoustic waveform. The response can reflect different timbres.

9. Dynamic range: the size of the sound that the microphone can receive. The upper limit is limited by harmonic distortion, and the lower limit is limited by the inherent noise. Therefore, the highest sound pressure level of the microphone minus the equivalent noise level is the dynamic range of the microphone.

10. Signal-to-noise ratio of the microphone: the signal-to-noise ratio is a parameter that characterizes the ratio of the signal voltage of the microphone to the noise voltage. The larger the signal-to-noise ratio, the higher the sensitivity of the microphone or the smaller the noise voltage, and its performance is better, otherwise it is the opposite.

 

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