The Selection and Usage of Microphone

- Oct 09, 2018-

When choosing a microphone, you should understand the technical characteristics, performance and use of the microphone itself. Select the appropriate microphone according to different sound sources and different pickup effects.

(1) Sensitivity selection

The sensitivity of the microphone is mostly expressed in dB. It should be noted that the -38dB is higher than -58dB. Generally, the condenser microphone is more sensitive than the moving coil microphone, and the dynamic range and frequency response are better than the moving coil type, but if you can't control your ambient noise, then you will find that the sound recorded with a condenser microphone is not as good as the moving coil.

(2) Selection of sound pressure level

The dynamic range of modern music is very large, and the highest sound level of some pieces can reach more than 130dB, especially when picking up sounds at close range, you must choose a microphone with high sound pressure level.

(3) Output impedance selection

The optimal load impedance of the microphone is usually more than 5 times the rated output impedance of the microphone. Only in this mated state can the microphone be considered to be operating close to the open state. When the microphone is working close to the open state, the output resistance of the microphone is extremely small, so its transient response, nonlinear distortion, frequency response and other electroacoustic technical indications are greatly improved. The output voltage of the high-impedance microphone is high, but when the transmission cable of the microphone is long, the high-frequency loss is high, and it is easy to string into external disturbance signals such as hum.

(4) Directivity selection

The directivity of the microphone can be understood as the range of the microphone's radio. When using the microphone with the heart-shaped pointing, the microphone must be facing the sound source. It has the advantage of avoiding crosstalk and not picking up too much ambient noise. But the heart-shaped microphone will have a near-talk effect. It should be noted that the heart-pointing microphone is sensitive to noise caused by wind and other air currents or to the actor's teeth. A windshield should be placed in front of the microphone. The advantage of the omnidirectional microphone is that there is no need to align the microphone with the sound source, and there is no near-talk effect when picking up the sound. The omnidirectional microphone picks up the sound more naturally when the ambient noise is good. However, omnidirectional microphones pick up too much noise when the ambient noise is high, and omnidirectional microphones are not conducive to crosstalk control.



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