The role of the microphone: the sound wave is received into the corresponding mechanical vibration, and then the corresponding electrical signal is generated by the mechanical vibration to complete the acoustic-electrical conversion. The most used microphones are: moving coil microphones and condenser microphones. Both microphones are pressure-type acoustic wave reception, that is, reacting to a certain sound pressure in space. And both of these are passive microphones, but they work differently.
The moving microphone is made according to the principle of electromagnetic induction. The diaphragm that receives the acoustic wave undergoes forced vibration to drive the coil in a constant magnetic field, thereby generating an alternating induced electromotive force to complete the conversion of acoustic energy to electrical energy. Advantages: simple structure and easy to use. Disadvantages: low sensitivity, narrow frequency range, and poor transient response compared to condenser microphones.
The condenser microphone is formed by a diaphragm that receives sound waves and its capacitance changes after being forced to generate an alternating voltage, thereby completing the acoustic-electric conversion. Advantages: wide frequency range, high sensitivity, low distortion and good sound quality. Disadvantages: complex structure, high cost, limited storage and use conditions.
High-quality moving coil microphones are often used in popular music and entertaining light music because of its high sound pressure level and good fidelity. It is highly reliable and does not require the supply of power supply voltage. Therefore, in general, especially in sound reinforcement, moving coil microphones are often used. Capacitive microphones are often used in recording and professional performance due to their wide frequency range, high sensitivity, low distortion and good sound quality.
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