The Optimum Pickup Range for A Microphone

- May 14, 2019-

1. Vocal microphone (Voice mic)

In the radio quotation room, people pick up vocal language programs, often using dynamic microphones and condenser microphones. The dynamic microphone is sturdy and durable, with high sensitivity and good directivity. The picked-up sound is clear, pure and soft, and the frequency response is in the range of 40 Hz to 16 kHz. The condenser microphone has good sound quality and high sensitivity. The picked-up sound is full, bright, subtle and exquisite. The frequency response is in the human ear audible band of 20 Hz-18 kHz. The condenser microphone has good pointing characteristics, and there are 5 pointing characteristics to choose from: omnidirectional, semi-circular, heart-shaped, super-cardioid and 8-shaped, which can be used under a variety of recording conditions.

In the form of broadcast language program host, the resolution is the main indicator. Most of them use heart-shaped, super-cardioid dynamic microphone or condenser microphone to pick up the sound. The heart-shaped pointing feature is a one-way pickup that only picks up the sound in front of it. When the angle between the mouth of the vocal and the center axis of the microphone is “0°”, the output frequency of the microphone is the best. If the speaker is speaking, the face and the neck sway from side to side, shaking up and down, and the mouth is off the center axis of the microphone. The sound energy will drift or decay. The 8-shaped directional microphone is a two-way pointing feature, and the sound on the front and back of the microphone can be picked up and used for the pickup of interview programs.

The omnidirectional microphone can be recorded in the 360° range, and the pickup area is large, which can be used for a large number of pickup occasions.

With the development of microphone technology, people have designed various types of microphones, hand-heldmic, clip-on mic (lavalier mic), goose-neck mic to suit different The pickup environment. Especially in recent years, the microphone is more and more concealed, and the gooseneck is getting shorter and shorter. For example, when watching the TV screen of the CCTV news broadcast room, people can hardly see the pickup microphone, and there will be no cover for the host's face. A scene that interferes with the projected image. The Goose-neck microphone and gun mic series are the most widely used conference microphones in recent years. These two models are highly sensitive and highly directional, and can clearly capture the voice of the speaker in front of the microphone, automatically suppressing ambient noise and feedback whistling. Suitable for live video and video conferencing, interviews, TV broadcasts and other occasions.

2. Instrument microphone

Musical instruments are an indispensable sound factor in music performance. The sound source is extremely complex, but the sounding components are nothing more than strings, membranes, springs, rods and air columns. From the perspective of a single sound source structure, the piano has a wide range of sounds, crisp high-pitched sound, full midrange, rich bass, and rich sound. Two microphones can be used, one in the high-pitched string and one in the bass string. The position of the quasi-string about 30 cm will pick up a crisp and full sound. The violin pulls the ponytail and rubs the strings. The sound is beautiful and shiny. You can choose the omnidirectional microphone to pick up the top of the bridge. The sound of the recording is soft and elegant. The cello sound is thick and thick, like the bass, and the pickup is also above the bridge. The wind instrument such as wood tube belongs to the air column vibration sound. 

The heart-shaped dynamic microphone can be placed in the tube hole nearly 40 cm, which can get a soft and bright sound effect; the brass instrument trumpet, trombone and horn sound are loud and bright. The sounding part is at the bell mouth. When using the microphone, pay attention to the direction of the sound wave flow slightly deviating from the bell mouth, which is suitable for collecting in the sound source area other than 50cm. If a condenser microphone is used for pickup, it can be attenuated by 10 dB, which makes it possible to achieve good pickup. The drum set is a set of commonly used instrumental instruments during the performance of the show. Both the drum and the bass drum can be picked up by a heart-shaped dynamic microphone. The microphone and the drum surface are at an angle of 45°, and the microphone is placed at a height of 30 cm above the drum surface. It is good to choose the heart-shaped condenser microphone, and the microphone can pick up the front sound in one direction. It sounds crisp, sharp, rhythm and rich in sound. It is a strong color instrument.

Picking up the live concert performances, the situation is huge, the use of microphones, and the main microphone pickup method is generally adopted. The brass and percussion instruments have a wide dynamic range, and the dynamic microphone can also achieve the ultimate acoustic effect.

When using a variety of microphones to pick up the sound, the auxiliary microphone can not be equally divided with the main microphone, the auxiliary microphone's pickup volume is smaller than the main microphone, otherwise it will affect the entire sound field effect.

 

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