The diaphragm of this type of microphone is an electrode of a capacitor. When the diaphragm vibrates and the distance between the diaphragm and the fixed rear plate changes, a variable capacitance is produced. This variable capacitance and the preamplifier of the microphone itself produces a signal voltage together. Features: good frequency characteristics, flat amplitude-frequency characteristic curve in the audio range, which is better than dynamic microphone; no directionality; high sensitivity, low noise, soft tone; large output signal level, small distortion, good transient response performance, this is the advantage that dynamic microphones can't reach.
There is a preamplifier in the condenser microphone. Of course, there must be a power supply. Due to the volume relationship, this power supply is usually placed outside the microphone. In addition to the polarization voltage supplied to the diaphragm of the capacitor, the necessary voltage is supplied to the tube or transistor of the preamplifier. We call it phantom power.
Because of this preamplifier, condenser microphones are relatively sensitive. Some of the accessory devices that are indispensable when used are: shock mounts (generally presented with microphones), windshields, microphone pop filter, and high-quality microphone stands. A microphone pop filter is indispensable if you want to record at very close distances.
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