The sound console is a frequently used device in sound reinforcement systems and video recording. The mixer plays a central role in many systems. It can create stereo sound, beautify sound, suppress noise and control volume. It is an indispensable machine for sound art processing.
The mixer has multiple inputs, and the acoustic signals of each channel can be processed separately. For example, it can be amplified, and the sound quality compensation for high, middle and low sounds can be added to the input sound, and the sound source of the road can be spatially positioned. Etc.; can also mix a variety of sounds, adjustable mixing ratio; has a variety of output (including left and right stereo output, edit output, mixed mono output, monitor output, recording output and various auxiliary outputs, etc.). Below we briefly introduce the sockets and function keys of the mixer.
(1) The socket of the input part of the mixer
1) Card Socket MIC: This is the microphone socket with three jacks on it, labeled 1, 2, 3. Reference numeral 1 is ground (GND), which is connected to the machine casing and has the casing at a level of 0 volts. Reference numeral 2 is a hot end (Hot) or a high end (Hi) which is one end of a transmission signal. Reference numeral 3 is a cold end or a low end (Low) which serves as the other end of the transmission signal. Since 2 and 3 have the same impedance with respect to 1 and have low impedance from the input, they are called low impedance balanced input jacks. It has strong anti-interference and low noise, and is generally used for connection of wired microphones.
2) Line input: It is a 1/4" large three-pin socket with 1/4" large three-pin plug (TRS), tip, ring, sleeve, as an input to the balance signal. It can also be used as a balanced signal input with a 1/4" large two-pin plug (TS). Its high input impedance is generally used for input jacks of other sound sources except the microphone.
3) Plug-in socket (INS): It is a special-purpose socket. It is normally connected to the inside. When needed, insert a 1/4" large three-pin plug to input the sound signal from the line input or microphone input. The tip is taken out and processed by the external device, and then the ring signal is returned to the mixer by the ring. Therefore, the socket is also called the outlet and the socket, and some of the mixers are labeled "Send/Return" or "in/out" socket.
4) Fixed value attenuation (PAD): When this button is pressed, the input acoustic signal (usually the acoustic signal input to the Line terminal) will be attenuated by 20dB (ie 10 times), and some mixers have an attenuation value of 30dB. It is suitable for large acoustic signal inputs.
5) Gain adjustment (Gain): It is used to adjust the amplification of the input acoustic signal. It is combined with the PAD to make the input acoustic signal enter the mixer when the signal-to-noise ratio is high and the distortion is small. The peak indicator of the road can be adjusted to be in an optimal state of being bright and not lit.
6) Low cut button (100Hz): Press this button to cut off the components below 100Hz in the frequency component of the input sound signal. This button is used for poor sound reinforcement environment, often with low-frequency humming and low-frequency sounds that are difficult to absorb.
7) Equilibrium adjustment (EQ): It is divided into three frequency bands: high frequency band (H.F.), medium frequency band (M.F.), and low frequency band (L.F.), which are mainly used for sound quality compensation.
a. High frequency band (H.F.): The tilt point frequency is 10 kHz, and the lifting loss is 15 dB. This frequency band mainly compensates for the clarity of the sound.
b. Mid-band (M.F.): The center frequency is adjustable from 250 Hz to 8 kHz; the peak-to-valley rise-out is 15 dB; the range of this band is wide, and the compensation is around a certain center frequency. If the center frequency falls in the middle and high frequency bands, the fade knob compensates for the brightness of the sound. If the center frequency falls in the middle and low frequency bands, the fade knob compensates for the strength of the sound.
c. Low frequency band (L.F.): The tilt point frequency is 150 Hz, and the lifting loss is 15 dB. This frequency band is mainly used to compensate for the fullness of the sound.
8) Auxiliary knob (AUX1/AUX2/AUX3/AUX4): Adjusting these auxiliary knobs is equivalent to adjusting the size of the sound sent to the corresponding auxiliary bus. The sound signals of AUX1 and AUX2 are taken from the Fader, not affected by the fader. The acoustic signals of AUX3 and AUX4 are derived from the Fader and are affected by the large fader adjustment. The former is labeled Pre and the latter is labeled Post.
9) Sound image adjustment (PAN): It is used to adjust the distribution image of the sound source in space. When adjusting to the left, it is equivalent to placing the sound source on the left side of the listening. When adjusting to the right, it is equivalent to placing the sound source on the right side of the listening. If you put it in the middle position, it is equivalent to placing the sound source in the middle of the listening. In fact, this knob is used to adjust the left and right distribution of the sound source, it is very important for the mixer to create stereo output.
10) Attenuator (fader): The adjustment of the function key serves two purposes: on the one hand, it is used to adjust the proportion of the sound of the road in the mixing and mixing, and the push ratio is large, and the pull-down ratio is small; on the other hand, It is used to adjust the far and near distribution of the sound source of the road, and pushes up the sound, which is equivalent to the sound source being placed at a relatively close position, and the sound is small, which is equivalent to placing the sound source at a far distance. The position sounds. It combines with PAN to create a spatial distribution of individual sound sources. The mixer creates stereo output using the Fader and PAN function keys.
(2) Function keys of the input part of the mixer
1). Monitor button PFL (Pre-Fade Listen's reduction): Before the attenuation, press it, and insert the earphone into the headphone jack of the mixer to hear the sound signal before the fader.
2). Turn on the button On: press it, the sound signal of the road is connected to the mixer for mixing.
3). L-R button: press it, the road sound signal is sent to the left and right channel bus after the fader and PAN.
4). 1-2 button: press it, the road sound signal is sent to the group bus 1 and 2 after the fader and PAN.
5). 3-4 button: press it, the road sound signal is sent to the group bus 3 and 4 after the fader and PAN.
There are many types of consoles, but the main function keys are the same. It is worth mentioning that each input of the mixer can only enter one sound source. Otherwise, it will interfere with each other, the impedance will not match, and the sound will cause distortion.
(3) Mixer output section
The arrangement of the output part of the mixer has the following rules
1) There are several busbars in the mixer, and there must be a corresponding output socket.
2) The sound signal output from each output socket must be equipped with its corresponding adjustment button on the mixer, which may be a push-pull button or a knob.
3) Each of the output adjustment function keys is equipped with a monitor button. The monitor button next to the push button is pushed to monitor the PEL. The monitor button next to the knob is the monitor through the knob (AFL).
4) The signal from the auxiliary return (AUX RET) or effect return (Effect RTN) jack enters the mixer, and the button that adjusts its size and the corresponding pan adjustment knob PAN must be installed.
5) Before the socket for outputting or editing the output, there is generally a corresponding INS (returning and re-entering the jack). The purpose is to perform special processing on the output signal before output, but the auxiliary output does not have INS. jack.
6) If the output section is equipped with a headphone and a T.B. Mic jack for the talkback tube, its bypass has its volume control knob. If you master the above six rules, you will know the function keys of the output part of the mixer.
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