When playing music, due to the capabilities and structure limitations of the speaker unit itself, it is difficult to cover all the frequency bands with only one speaker, and if the full-band signal is directly sent to the high, medium and low-range units without allocation, the unit frequency response the portion of the "excess signal" outside the range will adversely affect the signal reduction in the normal frequency band and may even damage the treble and midrange units. For this reason, designers must divide the audio frequency band into segments, and different frequency bands use different speakers for sound reproduction. This is the origin and function of the crossover.
The crossover is the "brain" in the speaker, which is very important for the sound quality. The music signal output by the amplifier must be processed by the filtering component in the splitter to allow the signals of specific frequencies of each unit to pass. It is necessary to scientifically design, rationally and rigorously design the sound separator of the speaker, in order to effectively modify the different characteristics of the speaker unit, optimize the combination, so that each unit can develop its strengths and avoid weaknesses, and exert its potential as much as possible to make the frequency response of each frequency band change. Smooth, accurate phase of the sound image, in order to make the music played by high, medium and low sounds clear, co-ordinated, clear, comfortable, wide and natural sound quality. From the working principle, the splitter is a filter network composed of a capacitor and an inductor. The treble channel only passes the high-frequency signal to block the low-frequency signal; the bass channel is just the opposite, only the bass is passed to block the high-frequency signal; the mid-range channel is a band-pass filter, except for one low-high two-frequency point The frequency between them can pass, and both the high frequency component and the low frequency component will be blocked.
The components of the passive splitter are: L/C/R, that is, the L inductor, the C capacitor, and the R resistor, and are flexibly applied to the frequency division network according to the characteristics of the frequency division of each component.
L Inductor: Its characteristic is to block higher frequencies and only pass lower frequencies, also known as "Low Pass Filter". The amount of the lower frequency is determined by the inductance of the "L inductor", and the inductive reactance unit is represented by "μH, mH". Inductor materials are commonly used: hollow inductors, iron oxide inductors, silicon steel sheet inductors, etc. The iron oxide inductor and the silicon steel sheet inductor are usually used only when a high inductance value is required and the hollow inductor cannot obtain a low DC resistance. Since the core inductor has magnetic saturation and causes distortion in the case of a large current, the core is iron core. Inductance is a product of compromise.
C Capacitor: Its characteristics are exactly opposite to those of the inductor, that is, blocking the passage of low frequencies, allowing higher frequencies to pass, called the “High Pass Filter”. How much high frequency is determined by the capacitance of the C capacitor. Its unit is "μF". There are a wide variety of capacitor materials, but non-polar capacitors are used in passive crossovers. Capacitors in the passive crossover for the midrange and high-range materials must be considered carefully, because there is an absolute correlation with the sound quality, the material of the selected capacitor is usually caused by the characteristics of the speaker and the loss of capacitance, phase loss and price. Decide.
R Resistor: It has no cutting frequency characteristics, and it is used in passive splitter to mix and match with inductor and capacitor. It can be used for correction, equalization curve and sensitivity increase and decrease for specific frequency points and frequency bands.
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