The microphone relies on directivity to work. The omnidirectional microphone has a uniform pickup in all directions, and the so-called cardioid microphone has a lower pickup angle than a low frequency. If you record the sound source always in front of the microphone, you don't have to think about it. But in reality this can only be achieved if you are recording in an environment without any reflective surfaces, otherwise the sound will bounce back into the microphone from every possible angle and the reflected sound will be dyed by the off-axis characteristics of the microphone.
Therefore, we need to choose a good sound field environment, and then choose a microphone with a very accurate off-axis response to accurately capture the acoustic characteristics of the room. Or, we can adjust the microphone position so that your microphone picks up as little as possible of the sound reflection.
Another method is often used in small studios where the heart-shaped microphone is placed very close to the sound source and an acoustic shutter is placed around the recording area to minimize reflections.
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