Condenser microphones require phantom power to drive their internal circuitry.
Phantom Power uses a 2-core shielded cable to power the microphone. The phantom power can be provided by a standalone device or by a mixer (via a microphone connector).
The microphone receives power through the same cable and sends an audio signal to the mixer. This is called "phantom" because the power supply does not require a separate cable, but is "hidden" in the cable used for signal transmission.
According to DIN standard 45596, the voltage of pin 2 and pin 3 of XLR is higher than the voltage of pin 1 (12-48V DC) when using phantom power. There is no voltage difference between pin 2 and pin 3. Pin 1 is grounded, pin 2 is audio positive, and pin 3 is audio reverse polarity.
In addition, the voltage at pin 1 is 0 volts, pin 2 has a positive voltage, and pin 3 has exactly the same positive voltage as pin 2. On many consoles, the phantom power switch will be labeled "P48", which stands for "48V phantom power."
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