The performance of the overall technical indicators of the sound system depends on the performance of each unit. If the technical indicators of each unit in the system are high, the overall technical indicators of the system are very good. There are six main technical indicators: frequency response, signal to noise ratio, dynamic range, distortion, transient response, stereo separation, and stereo balance.
1. The frequency response: The so-called frequency response refers to the frequency range of the audio equipment during playback and the amplitude of the sound wave as a function of frequency. Generally, this indicator is referenced to the frequency amplitude of 1000 Hz, and the amplitude of the frequency is expressed in decibels (dB) in logarithms.
The overall frequency response of the sound system is theoretically required to be 20 to 20000 Hz. In actual use, due to the structure of the circuit, the quality of the components, etc., this requirement is often not met, but generally at least 32~18000 Hz is required.
2. The signal-to-noise ratio: The so-called signal-to-noise ratio refers to the ratio of the sound reproduction of the sound system software to the new noise generated by the whole system. The noise mainly includes thermal noise, AC noise, and mechanical noise and so on. Generally, this indicator is expressed in decibels (dB) of the logarithmic ratio of the rated output power of the playback signal to the system noise output power at the time of no signal input. The signal to noise ratio of a typical audio system needs to be above 85dB.
3. Dynamic range: The dynamic range refers to the logarithm of the ratio of the maximum undistorted output power to the system noise output power during static playback, in decibels (dB). Generally, the sound system with better performance has a dynamic range of 100 (dB) or more.
4. Distortion: Distortion refers to the sound system's reproduction of the sound source signal, so that some parts of the original sound source signal (waveform, frequency, etc.) have changed. The main distortions of the sound system are as follows: (1) Harmonic Distortion: The so-called harmonic distortion means that the sound after playback of the sound system has many extra harmonic components than the original signal source. This additional harmonic component signal is the frequency multiplication or frequency division of the source frequency, which is caused by the nonlinear characteristics of the negative feedback network or amplifier. The harmonic distortion of a hi-fi system should be less than 1%.
(2) Intermodulation distortion: Intermodulation distortion is also a kind of nonlinear distortion, which is that two or more frequency components are mixed in a certain proportion, and each frequency signal is mutually modulated, and a newly added nonlinear signal is generated through the playback device, and the signal is generated, including the sum and difference signals between the individual signals.
(3) Transient distortion: Transient distortion, also known as transient response, is mainly generated when a large transient signal is suddenly applied to the amplifier due to the slow reflection of the amplifier, which causes the signal to be distorted. Generally, after the input square wave signal passes through the playback device, the envelope waveform of the output signal of the amplifier is observed to see whether the input square wave waveform is similar to express the followability of the amplifier to the transient signal.
5. Stereo Separation: The stereo separation indicates the isolation between the left and right channels of the stereo system. It actually reflects the degree of crosstalk between the left and right channels. If the crosstalk between the two channels is large, the stereoscopic effect of the reproduced sound will be weakened.
6. Stereo Balance: The stereo balance indicates the difference between the left and right channel gains in the stereo playback system. If the imbalance is too large, the panned pan position will be shifted. The stereo balance of a typical high quality sound system should be less than 1 dB.
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