1. The frequency response. It characterizes the frequency bandwidth of the sound console and the level consistency within the limited width. The frequency response requirement of a professional sound console is 30Hz--18000Hz. This is the frequency response of the sound console's total channel. If the frequency response of the sound console is not wide enough, then the high and low sounds will be cut partially, so that the original sound signal with a wide sound range cannot be recorded with high fidelity. Even if there is enough bandwidth, and there is no flat frequency response, the faithful recording of the original signal cannot be completed. Because the levels of different frequency bands are inconsistent, the signal distortion will inevitably occur. Therefore, the frequency response of the sound console should be wide enough to have flat characteristics. Only in this way, the sound engineer has the original basis when engaged in signal processing, that is, which segment of the frequency band is increased or attenuated, and is raised or attenuated around a certain center frequency.
2. Gain. The gain mentioned here refers to the total gain of the sound console, that is, the logarithm of the ratio of the output voltage of the sound console to the input voltage (dB). The output voltage U of the sound console is output, and the input voltage is U. Then, the total gain K of the sound console is written as the gain of the sound console divided into two indicators: maximum gain and rated gain. The maximum gain is the highest level of the sound console. The rated gain is the rated operating level of the sound console. The highest level is the upper limit of the sound console's dynamic range. In the case of a microphone input, the sound console's gain should be at least 70B, and the maximum can be above 90dB. In the case of online speech output and line output, the sound console has a gain of 0 dB.
3. Noise. The noise of the sound console, in the general electro-acoustic equipment, the common signal-to-noise ratio is used to characterize the relative relationship between signal and noise. The noise of the sound console is expressed by converting the noise at the output to the equivalent noise level at the input. This equivalent noise level converted to the input is typically required to be around -125dB. In this way, the sound console's signal-to-noise ratio can reach 80dB.
4. Distortion is a phenomenon in which a simple signal passes through a nonlinear component and generates multiple harmonics, which causes the waveform of the original signal to be changed. This distortion is often called harmonic distortion and is expressed in percentage. Harmonic distortion is different from linear distortion and intermodulation distortion. The calculation formula is as follows: harmonic distortion of the sound console, the total harmonic distortion coefficient THD≤5% under the condition of rated output. The maximum output should be less than 1%.
5. Linear. The linearity of the sound console, like other electro-acoustic devices, refers to the dynamic headroom, also called the reserve. The calculation method is the logarithmic value (dB) of the ratio of the maximum output voltage to the rated output voltage. The expression can also be expressed as the difference between the maximum output level and the nominal output level. Professional sound consoles should generally have a linearity of 15dB--20dB or more.
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