Directional Characteristics of the Microphone

- Apr 20, 2019-

In the microphone, there are three basic directional classifications: omnidirectional, bidirectional, and unidirectional.

First, omnidirectional microphone

Omnidirectional microphones (also known as non-directional microphones) are used to pick up sound in all directions and are equally sensitive to sound from all directions. Ideal for picking up the environmental effects of a room. Although this feature is more convenient for use in television broadcasts where several people stand or sit around a single microphone, in television production, it is often necessary to use some directional microphones. First, omnidirectional microphones do not effectively reduce or eliminate unwanted sounds, such as camera noise, noise around the scene, etc., while not maximizing the voice of the primary speaker.

Second, the bidirectional microphone

This type of microphone is also called (8 words) type. It picks up two sounds, not the sound in front or behind. The typical use is between two instruments, or two people standing face to face with the microphone for the two sounds to be recorded together, while retaining the independence of the two. Dual directional microphones are primarily sensitive to sound from both directions.

Third, unidirectional microphone

Unidirectional microphones are sensitive to sound from one direction. According to their sound characteristics, they can be divided into four categories: heart-shaped curve, super-heart-shaped curve, and special-shaped curve. Each of the directional curves is slightly different.

1. The heart shape curve

This microphone directly senses the sound in front and has a small extension range on both sides. The cardioid curve microphone is sensitive to a wide range of sounds in front of the microphone, but is insensitive to sound from behind the microphone. When placed 2 m or more from the speaker, it tends to pick up unwanted ambient sounds, including the reflected sound of the walls.

2. Supercardioid

This type of microphone can receive sound from a farther range in the front, but the sound on both sides is received very little. The supercardioid type is more directional than the cardioid curve, and when such a microphone is directed to a sound source, the interfering sound (off-axis) is often suppressed.

3. Special heart type

This microphone can receive farther sounds in front, but the sound on both sides cannot be received. Due to its super directionality, it can shield the ambient noise to the utmost extent. The center microphone is more directional. The angle at which the microphone receives the sound is small, and the sound outside the angle is mostly suppressed, but must be correctly pointed to the sound source when used, and the microphone must be adjusted as the speaker moves.

Single-pointing generally only has a heart-shaped pointing (only heart-shaped pointing can be used during recording)

Multi-pointing generally has three types: heart-shaped pointing, 8-shaped, and omnidirectional.



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