When a sound wave encounters a wall or other obstacle, it also “bends” to propagate along the edges of the object at the edges. This phenomenon is called acoustic diffraction (or acoustic diffraction). Studies have shown that the degree of diffraction depends on the relative size of the wavelength of the acoustic wave and the obstacle line, that is, the greater the ratio of the wavelength to the obstruction line, the stronger the diffraction, and vice versa. If the obstruction is much larger than the wavelength, there is a diffraction phenomenon, but there will be a clear sound-free area (a shadow area) near the edge of the obstruction.
It is generally believed that when the line-level of the object is less than λ~5λ, the incident sound wave basically bypasses the object; when it is equivalent to 5λ~10λ, there is also some diffraction; when it approaches 30λ, it is almost completely blocked.
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