Classification of Microphones

- Apr 29, 2019-

The condenser microphone is one of the oldest microphone types, and its appearance dates back to the early 20th century. Compared with other types of microphones, the mechanical construction of a condenser microphone is the simplest, mainly by attaching a thin, electrically conductive diaphragm to a metal foil called a back plate, which is used to form a simple capacitor structure. An external voltage source (usually a phantom power supply, but most condenser microphones also come with their own power supply) supplies power to the capacitor. When the sound pressure acts on the diaphragm, the diaphragm will make various slight vibrations along with the waveform, and then the vibration will change the capacitance, causing a change in the output voltage, and it is this change in the output voltage. The output signal of the microphone. In fact, condenser microphones can be divided into several types, but their basic working principles are the same.

A dynamic microphone is a microphone that produces an audio signal by the motion of a conductor inside a magnetic field. Most of the dynamic microphones are equipped with a very thin and light diaphragm. This diaphragm can vibrate according to the change of sound pressure, so that the sound coil suspended in the magnetic field moves, forming a slight current, and finally transforms. Outputs the sound signal for the microphone. Due to its mechanical construction, dynamic microphones are not particularly sensitive to transient signals, and the reproduction of high frequencies is inferior to other types of microphones in terms of fineness and accuracy. However, dynamic microphones are generally constructed to be robust and capable of withstanding high sound pressure levels without the need for external phantom power. At the price point, the dynamic microphone is generally slightly lower than the condenser microphone, but some of the higher-end dynamic microphones are more expensive. In use, dynamic microphones are mostly used for live performances, but they can also be used in studios to record the sound of electric guitars, electronic drums and other instruments.

Ribbon microphone, which is a rate microphone, and the so-called rate microphone is different from a conventional microphone in that it no longer responds to sound pressure levels, but through the air molecules passing through it. The rate of motion reacts to produce a sound signal. In fact, many times, the functional improvements brought by this new construction are not important, but it has caused a lot of trouble in the use of microphones in windy weather, especially the early crawler microphones, holding It can be destroyed by the rate of movement of air molecules from the end of the room to the other end, but now the crawler microphones are fully capable of withstanding the studio's daily use. The basic working principle of a crawler microphone is to loosely suspend a small piece of wrinkled metal strap in a magnetic field. When the air molecules move, it also moves, thus cutting the flux of magnetic flux in the magnetic field, and then cutting produce a sound signal.



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